Technology in the L2 Curriculum (Theory and Practice in Second Language Classroom Instruction)

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Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. We only learn language once. Students see theoretical courses as opportunities for gaining more exposure to the foreign language. Thus, they would like teachers to provide materials in the L2 and use it as a medium of instruction. Outside school they speak Spanish at home and on the street, and they think it is fair that English or French use is compulsory in theoretical courses by the teachers assigned to those courses. Another suggestion regarding content is that courses can be complemented with materials featuring cultural content.

Finally, one advanced learner commented that the communicative competence courses and the methodology courses need to be more connected so that learners are constantly reminded that they are in the program to become teachers. Other factors affecting learner satisfaction. This category encompasses some comments that can enhance the effectiveness of the programs.

The first idea is having the same teacher in charge of all the research courses so that there is coherence, cohesiveness, and a sense of progress between them.

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Another one points out that the classroom tasks in research classes need to be done directly in the language in which they intend to write their project i. Increasing tutoring sessions is also suggested since these activities prevent students from falling behind and failing courses. The participants would also like to see tutoring extended to theoretical courses in English, French, and Spanish because they think that the complexity of the topic is what needs to be addressed, not the language proficiency of the students.

One remark that was prevalent has to do with teacher evaluation: Learners expressed their frustration with it because regardless of the answers they provide, changes are not significant. They even said that sometimes they complete the teacher evaluation survey automatically because they do not think teaching practices will be modified by the results of the evaluation.

It was added that while teachers who excel should be rewarded, those who do not need follow-up to ensure they improve their performance and make an effort to guide learners to their goals.

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  8. Specific comments also addressed punctuality, teachers giving them large amounts of work to be handed in the next day, and the language proficiency of some of the teachers. Students commented that they are, in general, satisfied with their preparation for becoming teachers and they think the programs are academically strong. They feel proud of their knowledge, confident with their performance, and expect to be able to teach successfully thanks to the courses they have taken.

    The ideas expressed by learners in these two programs relate to their particular learning experience. However, they can also be used to reflect on similar programs around the country and on the factors that affect learner satisfaction. As suggested earlier, this study intended to collect specific student feedback regarding different factors that might affect learner satisfaction. One main conclusion is that foreign language teacher education programs would benefit from having permanent and detailed information about learner satisfaction.

    This will allow curricular agents to get acquainted with issues that might be overlooked by relying solely on multiple choice surveys.


    A combination of quantitative and qualitative instruments is needed to ensure quality and learner satisfaction in the BA programs. In this study, a generalized degree of satisfaction is perceived among beginner, intermediate, and advanced learners in both programs, and the suggestions provided are similar in the two programs as well, but the specific comments provide a rich source of information that can help teachers and administrators introduce positive changes.

    There are no significant differences between programs, or among male and female participants. There is, however, a higher perceived satisfaction among advanced learners. Students in their last year perceive that they are sufficiently equipped to successfully face their responsibilities as teachers in practicum and afterwards. Learner satisfaction is an area that deserves further exploration and analysis given that teacher education programs cover dissimilar areas that go from communicative competence to research, but they are all interconnected.

    If one dimension fails, it will affect the others. It is then our responsibility as teachers, researchers, and administrators to listen to the students and try to incorporate those ideas and expectations. The best space to discuss these ideas and come up with tangible strategies is the self-evaluation process that programs undergo permanently. Being satisfied with a program does not necessarily have to do with having the latest technological resources, high-level classrooms, or numerous native speakers. The surveyed students expressed that satisfaction also comes from elements such as respect, openness, warmth, and honesty in the interaction of the members of the academic community and this is an area that deserves attention.

    Activities that encourage the strengthening of interpersonal relationships and cooperation need to be permanently fostered.

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    6. Advanced learners display more satisfaction than beginner or intermediate learners. This might be due to the fact that they have already taken courses related to methodology, research, and assessment, and they have a better understanding of their role as future teachers. Learners are satisfied with the development of foreign language proficiency, but it can be improved by implementing technology in the classroom and ensuring that the L2 courses enforce the same standards, organization, and learning experiences.

      For Rojas teachers can use resources that allow them to cooperate in a virtual environment, jointly solve pedagogical challenges, and use technology to "help each other, engage in collaborative projects and training, evaluate programs, and discuss possible solutions and future plans. In other words, technology not only facilitates learning and teaching processes, but also fosters professional development and teacher training endeavors" p. One important conclusion is that the analyzed programs are perceived as academically strong, organized, and oriented towards providing high-quality preparation for future foreign language teachers.

      Learners feel confident in their proficiency and teaching skills and feel ready to successfully participate in openings for scholarships, to look for jobs outside the region and the country, to compete for a permanent job in public schools. This is particularly important because, as Akcan states,. Public universities and their L2 teacher education programs in Colombia need to keep striving for autonomy because learners do perceive them as effective and satisfying. Despite the sometimes negative external appraisal, universities are aware of their context and of the varied learning experiences future L2 teachers need.

      Finally, considering the degree of satisfaction reported and the comments made by the participants in this study, it can also be concluded that, in the case of L2 teacher education programs, doing our homework and striving for excellence should involve carrying out research projects, publishing in academic journals, giving lectures and making presentations both teachers and students at local and international events.

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      Akcan, S. Novice non-native English teachers' reflections on their teacher education programmes and their first years of teaching. Profile: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 18 1 , Al-Azawei, A. Learner differences in perceived satisfaction of an online learning: An extension to the technology acceptance model in an Arabic sample.

      The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 13 5 , Bilingual Colombia: Are we ready for it? What is needed? Caruana, A. Learner satisfaction in marketing simulation games: Antecedents and influencers.